2002 Evaluation

The Non Managerial Learning Programme was fully evaluated in 2002. The data was collected over one year and 252 people took part. The results were published in 2004.

 

Results showed that people who used Non Managerial Clinical Supervision (NMCS) for a year after training had;

  1. Statistically significant reductions in their levels of burnout.
  2. Statistically significant results showing that NMCS was an effective form of supervision.

For the full report of The Non-Managerial Clinical Supervision 2002 Evaluation, please click on the link below;

The 2002 Evaluation of Non-Managerial Clinical Supervision

Highlights of the report are listed below.

 

 Introduction

Clinical Supervision is an important part of a clinicians’ professional practice (College of Occupational Therapy 1997, The Chartered Society of Physiotherapists 2003, The Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists 1996, British Dietetic Association 2000). There has always been an underlying belief in the need to support, educate and manage clinicians who are providing a service to clients (Hunter, Blair 1999). However there is a dearth of literature on how experienced, qualified clinicians should be supervised. Having worked with a range of health professionals over many years, it became evident that the majority of clinicians received no training in how to carry out supervision of qualified clinicians  (Sweeney et al. 2001). If training was received it tended to come from settings such as social services or counselling or psychotherapy. 

This project was created to develop evidenced based training in clinical supervision for therapists. The project developed into the Non-Managerial Clinical Supervision Learning Programme , which has now trained nearly 2000 therapists and healthcare scientists. As part of this programme a Model, Protocol and Learning Programme have been researched, piloted and set up for all allied health professionals and health care scientists in Birmingham, Solihull and the Black Country. This document specifically looks at the evaluation of Non-Managerial Clinical Supervision. 


Method 
The original idea for the Non-Managerial Clinical Supervision project came from two colleagues who worked at Heartlands Hospital Birmingham, Marie Waddell, Speech and Language Therapy manager and Helen Tomes, Occupational Therapy manager. 

They proposed the “development of a programme or learning package that provided a structured format for the supervision of qualified staff in Professions Allied to Medicine”.


Funding was obtained from the Birmingham and Solihull Education Consortium . 

The Non-Managerial Clinical Supervision Learning Programme was successfully researched and piloted over a six-month period in 2000; using a group of community based Speech and Language Therapists and acute hospital based Occupational Therapists. The results were positive and were used to gain funding to provide the programme to all Dieticians, Occupational Therapists, Speech and Language Therapists and Physiotherapists in Birmingham and Solihull. The second phase of the project was set up in the summer of 2001. 

When setting up the second phase of the project, it was important to evaluate the effectiveness of not just the Learning Programme as a form of training, but also Non-Managerial Clinical Supervision (NMCS). Many issues were considered for measurement (Butterworth, T et al. 1996). 

Did NMCS, 
• Reduce sick leave? 
• Increase job satisfaction? 
• Improve recruitment (Rossiter D (1) 2002)? 
• Improve retention (Rossiter D (2) 2002)? 
• Reduce stress (Healthcare Commission 2004)? 
• Improve patient care through skills, knowledge, and or quality of service provided? 
• Encourage formal reflection of complex clinical situations? 
• Provide support? 
• Allow personal issues that were affecting work to be discussed? 
• Encourage an honest open dialogue? 

Did profession, age, grade, role, gender, experience, personal circumstances, post profession qualification training, impact on the effectiveness of NMCS? 
Pragmatism won the day. It was felt there was a limit to how much data could be collected and the number of reliable and valid questionnaires that were available on these subjects was restricted and costly. 

Three questionnaires were used, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Human Services Survey (MBI). The MBI should be used in conjunction with the Human Services Survey, (HSS) Demographic Data Sheet; these are an American set of questionnaires and the publisher advised me that the original data sheet was heavily weighted towards Americans and to use the data sheet as a template to produce an English version. This was done. Training to administer the Maslach Burnout Inventory was completed in Oxford England. The Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale (MCSS) was used to measure the effectiveness of supervision. No training was required to administer the MCSS.

These three questionnaires covered the above list except retention, recruitment and job satisfaction; these issues have not been formally evaluated. 

The Minnesota Job Satisfaction questionnaire was investigated. The author was unable to use it without supervision of an appropriately trained person, and one could not be found. Training at the time was only available in America. Recruitment and retention was investigated but collection of data was found to be a problem across Trusts as this was collated in many different forms and for some Trusts difficult information to access. 

The first cohort to be evaluated comprises of all Speech and Language Therapists, Dieticians, Occupational Therapists and Physiotherapists who were trained between 2001 and 2002 using the seven-day training programme (through evaluation of the Learning Programme this has now been reduced to a maximum of five days and more usually three days. This has been achieved by therapists developing The Model of Non-Managerial Clinical Supervision and a supporting protocol). 

All participants completed the MBI and the HSS Demographic Data Sheet before training began and numbered 252 participants. Participants were then invited to repeat the MBI after they had: 

• Completed their training 
• Set up their supervision sets 
• Attended six supervision sessions. 

136 participants met these criteria. To ensure the validity and reliability of the MCSS the evaluation had to take place after six sessions had been completed. Participants were invited to complete the MCSS when repeating the MBI. 

In practice

• The Learning Programme would normally take about two months to complete delivery (delivery was most commonly one day a week). 
• The participants usually took about three months to set up supervision sets. 
• The time between sessions was normally two months 
• Therefore this whole process took a minimum of 18 months more usually longer. 
• Collection of data spanned late 2003 to the middle of 2004. 

This document gives you the results of this evaluation in the following order: 

• HSS Demographic Data Sheet 
• MBI pre and post training 
• MCSS 
• MBI & MCSS combined

Acknowledgements

Having an opportunity to carry out a full evaluation of this project has been a wonderful experience. We hope that the next cohort can be evaluated soon. 

I would like to thank all the people who have made this study possible. 252 people are a lot to name therefore I have named the managers who helped make it possible through their commitment to the Project and the Learning Programme. 

Alison Wilson 
Anne Stamps 
Carole Davies 
Elaine Jackson 
Emma Mays 
Genny Hawkins 
Helen Mould 
Helen Reilly 
Helen Tomes 
Hilary Mann 
Jackie Mallett 
Jane Stroud 
Janice Clarke 
Jenny Boucher 
Karen Wicks 
Kaye Radford 
Linda Parker 
Marie Waddell 
Sheila Wood 

Finally I would like to thank my supervisor Dr Yohan Bhatti. Lynne Kemp, Ann Fennell and Julia Brinsdon who made up the Clinical Supervision Team at this time for all their hard work and Anne Gilford, Allied Health Professionals and Health Care Scientist Development Manager for ensuring the continuing financial support of this project. 


References 
British Dietetic Association (2000) Guidance Document: Clinical Supervision for Dietitians. BDA 
Butterworth, T et al. (November 1996) It’s good to talk? The 23 Site Evaluation Project of Clinical Supervision in England and Scotland. The School of Nursing Midwifery and Health Visiting. The University of Manchester. 
Chartered Society of Physiotherapists. (2003) A Guide to Implementing Clinical Supervision For Qualified And Associate Members. CPD 37 London CSP 
Christina Maslach, Susan E. Jackson, MBI Human Services Survey ©1986 by Consulting Psychologists Press 
College of Occupational Therapy (1997) Statement on Supervision in Occupational Therapy. SPP 150(A). London COT 
Healthcare Commission (2004) Inspecting, Informing, Improving. Healthcare Commission, 2003 NHS Staff Survey. Healthcare Commission 
Hunter E, Blair S (1999) Staff Supervision for Occupational Therapists. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62(8) 344-50. 
Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale © Dr Julie B. Winstanley 2000 
Rossiter D (1) (2002) Why SLT is a Shortage Profession. RCSLT Bulletin 604(8) 8-10 
Rossiter D (2) (2002) Regrading: Pleasures, Perils and Pitfalls. Bulletin 605(9) 6-8 
Sweeney G, Webley P, Treacher A (2001) Supervision in Occupational Therapy, Part 3: Accommodating the Supervisor and the Supervisee. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64(9) 426-431 
Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (1996) Communicating Quality 2 Professional standards for speech and language therapists RCSLT page 248-9 




Description of participants

There were 14 therapy departments involved in the programme. 

Almost half of the participants were Speech and Language Therapists. Dietitians were the next largest group followed by Occupational Therapists and Physiotherapists. 

There were 33 Managers, 177 Therapists and 38 Support Workers. 

Two thirds (66%) of the participants worked solely in a community setting. 23% of participants worked solely in hospitals and 11% worked in both hospitals and the community. 

Time after Qualification 
Physiotherapists had been qualified longest with most having been qualified between 15 and 25 years, most Dietitians had been qualified between 5 and 10 years, whilst most Occupational Therapists and Speech and Language Therapists had been qualified for up to five years. 

Managers have been qualified longer (on average 20.4 years) than both Therapists (12.0 years) and Support Workers (4.9 years). 

Participants who work in Hospital settings were more likely than either those working in Community or Mixed settings to have been qualified for over 25 years. 

All but 12 of the participants had a professional qualification. Most participants have been qualified for over five years, with only 6% qualifying in the last five years. The average period since qualifying was 12.1 years. 

Additional Qualifications 
13 participants had upgraded their professional qualification from a diploma; 6 of these were managers. 10 of the 13 who had upgraded were Speech and Language Therapists. 12 of the 13 worked in a community setting and 1 of the 13 in a mixed community and hospital setting. 

24 participants had a higher qualification of which 15 were Speech and Language Therapists. 

Grade 
Nearly three quarters of the participants had been at their current grade for less than five years. On average the participants had been at their current grade for 4.5 years. Physiotherapists tended to have been at their present grade longer than the other professions. Managers had been at their current grade longest followed by Therapists and Support Workers. Those who worked in both hospital and community settings had been at their current grade longest and those who worked solely in the community had been at their current grade shortest. 

Employment 
Nearly three quarters of the participants had been in their current job for less than five years. Physiotherapists tended to be in their current job for longer than the other professions, and Managers longer than Therapists and Support Workers. Those working in a Hospital setting had been in their present job for longer. 

Management tasks 
Over two thirds of participants were not involved with managerial tasks. Occupational Therapists were most likely to spend their time on management tasks. As expected, managers spent a much greater portion of their time on management compared with Therapists and Support Worker. Almost half of the hospital workers carried out some management tasks.

Hours

On average participants worked 30.3 hours a week. Physiotherapists work on average fewer hours than the other professions. Managers worked the longest of any Professional role; those working in a Mixed setting worked fewer hours than those working solely in the Community or Hospital. 

Sick leave 
On average the participants took 2.4 days sick leave in the last 12 months. Physiotherapists had the fewest sick leave days with 1.2 days. Managers also took the least sick leave with 1.2 days. There was no substantial difference in the profile for sick leave between clinical settings. 

Sex 
All but one respondent was female. 

Age 
The average age of the participants was 36.5 years, with the youngest participant aged 21 and the oldest aged 61. Physiotherapists were older than the other professions as were Managers compared to Therapists and Support Workers. There was no substantial difference in the age of those working in the different clinical settings. 

Marital status 
Over half of the participants were married. Managers were most likely to be married. 

Children 
Just over half of all participants had children, and 13% of all participants had children below school age. Physiotherapists were more likely to have children than the other professions, but more Dietitians had children below school age. Nearly three quarters of Managers had children. Managers were also more likely to have children at home and below school age. More of those working in a Mixed setting had children and were more likely to have children below school age. Participants working solely in a hospital were more likely to have children living at home. 



Analysis of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)


Introduction 
The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) consists of 22 statements measuring 3 factors: Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization and Personal Accomplishment. 

Emotional Exhaustion (EE) measures feelings of being emotionally overextended and exhausted by work, Depersonalization (DP) measures an unfeeling and impersonal response towards clients, and Personal Accomplishment (PA) measures feelings of competence and achievement. High EE, high DP and low PA scores are associated with burnout. 


If training has a positive outcome, post training scores should reduce for EE and DP and increase for PA. 



Overall effect of training 

Before training 
Before the training, participants in this study reported that they rarely agreed with the following statements (a few times a year or never): 

• I feel I treat some recipients as if they were impersonal objects 
• I've become more callous toward people since I took this job 
• I worry that this job is hardening me emotionally 
• I don't really care what happens to some recipients 

Participants reported that they often agreed with the following statements (a few times a week or every day): 

• I can easily understand how my recipients feel about things 
• I can easily create a relaxed atmosphere with my recipients 

Comparisons with previous studies 
Participants in this study before training show slightly lower levels of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment than other studies have shown for professionals in medicine, but higher levels than mental health professionals. They also show lower levels of depersonalisation than both medicine and mental health professionals. 

After training 
After the training, similar patterns of data were produced with participants reporting that they rarely agreed with the following statements (a few times a year or never): 

• I feel I treat some recipients as if they were impersonal objects 
• I've become more callous toward people since I took this job 
• I worry that this job is hardening me emotionally 
• I don't really care what happens to some recipients 
 

Post training, participants reported that they often agreed with the following statements (a few times a week or every day)

• I can easily understand how my recipients feel about things 
• I deal very effectively with the problems of my recipients 
• I can easily create a relaxed atmosphere with my recipients 


The Effect of Training on Overall Burnout 
Overall, depersonalisation decreased by 14.9% after training and personal accomplishment increased by 2.8% after training which shows reduced levels of burnout and a positive outcome. However, emotional exhaustion decreased only slightly, 1.3%, after training and did not affect burnout to a significant level. 


If training has a positive outcome on burnout, scores should decrease for EE and DP and increase for PA. 


Professional Role 

Before training 
Before training, managers and, to a slightly lesser extent, therapists were the most emotionally exhausted and had the more frequent feelings of depersonalisation. They also had the highest levels of personal accomplishment. Support workers showed the lowest levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation but also the lowest levels of personal accomplishment. 

After training 
After training, managers were no longer consistently higher, and support workers were no longer consistently lower on emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Support workers still showed the lowest levels of personal accomplishment, but the different professional roles gave similar scores for emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. 


The effect of training 
Emotional exhaustion scores increased post training for support workers and decreased for therapists and managers. This was a positive result for therapists and managers, but a negative result for support workers. 

Depersonalisation scores showed a similar pattern where scores increased post training for support workers and decreased for therapists and managers. Again, this was a positive result for therapists and managers, but a negative result for support workers. 

Personal accomplishment scores increased post training for all groups but most of all for therapists. This shows a positive effect of training for all groups. 



Profession 

Before training 
Before training, Occupational Therapists and Speech and Language Therapists had the lowest emotional exhaustion scores. Dietitians and Physiotherapists had the highest levels of emotional exhaustion. A similar pattern was found for depersonalisation scores. Speech and Language Therapists had the lowest personal accomplishment scores, followed by Physiotherapists, Occupational Therapists and then Dietitians with the highest scores. 

After training 
After training, Occupational Therapists again had lowest emotional exhaustion scores and Physiotherapists the highest. All professions had similar depersonalisation scores after training. The lowest personal accomplishment scores were provided by Dietitians and Speech and Language Therapists, and the highest by Occupational Therapists and Physiotherapists. 

The effect of training 
Emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation scores decreased post training for Dietitians and Occupational Therapists; Physiotherapists and Speech and Language Therapists gave similar scores before and after training. Broadly similar personal accomplishment scores were given before and after training for all professions. 

The results show a positive effect of training for Dietitians and Occupational Therapists on levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. 


Clinical Setting 

Before training 
Before training, there were similar emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation scores for those working in a hospital setting, those working in a community setting, and those working in a mixture of hospital and community settings. Hospital workers had low levels of personal accomplishment compared to community workers and those in mixed settings. 

After training 
After training, all groups had similar scores on each of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. 

The effect of training 
Emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment did not change with training. Feelings of depersonalisation decreased by similar amounts for participants based in each of the clinical settings showing a positive effect of training. 


Marital Status 

Similar emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal accomplishment scores were given before and after training by single, married and divorced participants, and those with a long term partner. 


Children 

Before and after training 
Overall, the before and after training scores moved in virtually the same direction and were broadly similar for emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment regardless of whether participants had children or not. 

The effect of training 
Looking at the movement of scores following training, those participants without children showed lower emotional exhaustion scores. This showed a positive effect of training on the emotional exhaustion of those without children. Participants with children showed only a neutral effect of training on levels of emotional exhaustion. 

Feelings of depersonalisation reduced with training regardless of whether participants had children or not. Conversely, feelings of personal accomplishment increased with training regardless of whether participants had children or not. These results show a positive effect of training. 

Children at home 

Before and after training 
Overall, the before and after training scores moved in virtually the same direction and were broadly similar for emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment regardless of whether participants had children living at home or not. 

The effect of training 
Looking at the movement of scores following training, feelings of depersonalisation reduced regardless of whether participants had children or not. Conversely, feelings of personal accomplishment increased with training regardless of whether participants had children or not. Both these results show a positive effect of training. 

Training had no effect on emotional exhaustion. 


Children under school age 

Similar emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personalisation scores were given both before and after training regardless of whether participants had children under school age or not. 


Length of time after qualification, in present grade, and in present job 

Before training 
Before training, there was no relationship between the length of time after qualification and levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. There was also no relationship between the burnout measures and the length of time in present grade and in present job. 


After training 
After training, however, higher personal accomplishment scores were shown for those respondents who had been qualified the longest. Higher personal accomplishment scores were also shown for those who had been their present grade or their present job the longest. 

In summary, it would appear that people who have been qualified the longest, and stayed at their grade, or job for some time tend to have the highest personal accomplishment score after training. This is shown after training and suggests that training enables those with longer service to reflect on their experience and gain feelings of personal accomplishment. 

There was no relationship between the length of time after qualification, length of time at present grade and in present job with levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. 


Sickness 

Sickness had a negative effect on participants. Post training emotional exhaustion scores increased as the number of days absent through sickness increased, whereas feelings of personal accomplishment decreased. This suggests that participants were less able to benefit from supervision sessions as their days away from work through sickness increased.

 

Analysis of the Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale (MCSS)


The Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale (MCSS) was completed 1 year after training. It consists of 36 items making up the following 7 sub-scales measuring effectiveness of Clinical Supervision (CS): 

1. Trust/rapport measures the level of trust or rapport with the supervisor during the CS session, and the ability to discuss sensitive issues (maximum possible score is 35). 
2. Supervisor advice/support measures the extent to which the supervisee feels supported by the supervisor (maximum possible score is 30). 
3. Improved care/skills measures the extent to which the supervisee feels CS has affected their delivery of care and improved their skills (maximum possible score is 35). 
4. Importance/value of CS measures the importance or value of CS and whether it is felt to be necessary to improved quality of care (maximum possible score is 30). 
5. Finding time measures the amount of time available to attend CS sessions (maximum possible score is 20). 
6. Personal issues measures the level of support for issues of a personal nature (maximum possible score is 15). 
7. Reflection measures how supported the supervisee feels with reflecting on complex clinical experiences (maximum possible score is 15). 

The sessions are in a group format and different adults will take the role of the supervisor. Each member has 30 mins to talk. The whole session can take up to 2½ hours.” 



Overall attitudes towards CS 


Overall, participants feel positively towards the level of trust or rapport they have with their supervisor, the support provided by their supervisor, the affect of CS on their delivery of care and on their skill improvement, the necessity of CS to improve quality of care, the amount of support available for issues of a personal nature, and towards the amount of support available for reflection. Participants feel negatively towards the amount of time available to attend CS sessions but not significantly so. Participants feel positively towards CS as a whole. 

In general, participants agreed or strongly agreed with the following statements: 

• My superior gives me support and encouragement 
• CS gives me time to 'reflect' 
• Work problems can be tackled constructively during CS sessions 
• CS sessions facilitate reflective practice 
• I can discuss sensitive issues encountered during my clinical casework with my supervisor 
• It is important to make time for CS sessions 


In general, participants disagreed or strongly disagreed with the following statements: 

• CS sessions are not necessary/don't solve anything 
• CS sessions are intrusive 
• CS is unnecessary for experienced/established staff 
• My supervisor acts in a superior manner during our sessions 
• CS is for newly qualified/inexperienced staff only 


Although it has sometimes been difficult to allocate time for CS, it has been useful in allowing the group to focus on clinical issues. It has been useful to have a group of therapists from different areas of the service.” 


Professional Role 
Clinical supervision was found to be equally effective for all professional roles with similar scores found on each of the seven sub-scales (see above). 


Pay Grades 
Clinical supervision was also found to be equally effective for all pay grades with similar scores found on each of the seven sub-scales and for the total MCSS score. 


Profession 
Although the mean scores for all professions were generally positive, the lowest (more negative) trust/rapport scores were produced by Speech and Language Therapists compared with Dietitians, Occupational Therapists, and Physiotherapists. Dietitians and Occupational Therapists gave the highest scores on supervisor advice/support with the lowest (more negative) scores being shown by Physiotherapists and Speech and Language Therapists. 

No differences were found between professions for the effectiveness of clinical supervision with respect to improved care/skills, importance/value of CS, finding time, personal issues, or reflection. 
Clinical Setting 
There was some evidence that there may be a difference in the ability to find time for clinical supervision with community only participants being most able to find time for clinical supervision, followed by hospital only participants, and with participants from a mixture of settings least able to find time. 

No differences were found between clinical settings for the effectiveness of clinical supervision with respect to trust/rapport, supervisor advice/support, improved care/skills, importance/value of CS, personal issues, or reflection. 


Marital status 
Clinical supervision was found to be equally effective for all marital status groups with similar scores found on each of the seven sub-scales and for the total MCSS score. 


Children 
Clinical supervision was found to be equally effective regardless of whether participants had children or not, or whether participants had children living at home or not. Participants gave similar scores on each of the seven sub-scales making up the MCSS. 

Those with children under school age were more positive than those without children under school age with respect to the level of support that clinical supervision provides for personal issues. Participants with children under school age were also more positive towards the support they received for reflection compared to those without children under school age. There was some evidence of slight differences for trust/rapport and improved care/skills with more positive responses with respect to clinical supervision given by those with children under school age compared to those without children under school age. 

These results suggest that clinical supervision is particularly effective to those with children under school age for the aspects of personal issues, reflection, trust/rapport and improved care/skills. 

Perhaps surprisingly, there were no differences in the ability to find time for clinical supervision between participants with or without children, those with or without children living at home, or between those with or without children under school age. 


Length of time after qualification 
The effectiveness of the clinical supervision with respect to supervisor advice/support, and improved care/skills decreased as the length of time after qualification increased. Thus, participants who had recently qualified were most likely to find clinical supervision effective with respect to supervisor advice/support, and improved care/skills. 

There was also some evidence that clinical supervision became less effective with respect to the importance/value of CS as participants’ time after qualification increased. Overall, the effectiveness of clinical supervision decreased as the length of time after qualification increased as shown by decreasing total MCSS scores. 


Length of time in present grade and in present job 
There is a suggestion that participants who had recently started in their present job were likely to find clinical supervision the most effective with respect to supervisor advice/support compared with those who had been in post for longer periods of time. Similarly, participants who had recently started in their present job were likely to find clinical supervision as a whole most effective with those who had been in post longest finding clinical supervision least effective as measured by the total MCSS score. 


Associations between burnout (MBI) and attitudes towards CS (MCSS) 
Those with high levels of emotional exhaustion after training find clinical supervision least effective for trust/rapport; and those with low levels of emotional exhaustion find clinical supervision most effective for this aspect. 

The ability to find time for clinical supervision decreases as post training emotional exhaustion increases. Thus, participants with high levels of emotional exhaustion (i.e. those who may benefit most from attending clinical supervision sessions) feel least able to find time to do so. A similar result is shown for the overall effectiveness of clinical supervision: when levels of post training emotional exhaustion increase, clinical supervision is less effective. 

There was some evidence that high depersonalisation scores on the MBI after training may be related to effective reflection on complex clinical experiences through clinical supervision. Thus, those with unfeeling and impersonal responses towards clients after training may be more likely to reflect on complex clinical issues in supervision sessions and find clinical supervision beneficial on this aspect. 



Summary

Summary of MBI Results 
In summary the MBI showed that training in supervision and receiving supervision for a year affected the participants’ level of burnout in the following ways: 

• All managers and therapists had a reduction in burnout 
• Emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation scores improved for Occupational Therapists and Dietitians 
• Marital status had no impact on levels of burnout 
• Depersonalisation scores improved for all participants regardless of their work being in a hospital, community or mixed setting. 
• Participants without children experienced a reduction in emotional exhaustion 
• Participants with or without children improved their depersonalisation and personal accomplishment scores 
• Participants who had stayed in their profession, grade or job for some time felt that supervision increased their levels of personal accomplishment 
• As the number of days absent from work through sickness increased, emotional exhaustion increased and supervision did not improve this 


Summary of MCSS Results 
In summary the MCSS showed that after training in supervision and receiving supervision for a year: 

• Dietetic and Occupational Therapist supervisees felt the most supported from their supervisors 
• Participants in community settings were most able to find time for supervision meetings 
• Participants with children were more positive about raising personal issues 
• Participants with children were more positive about carrying out reflection in supervision meetings 
• Participants with children under school age were more positive about discussing sensitive issues with their supervisors 
• Participants with children under school age were more positive about the extent to which clinical supervision affected the delivery of care and improved their skills 
• It is interesting to note that professional role, marital status and pay grade made no difference as to how participants viewed the effectiveness of clinical supervision 
• The effectiveness of clinical supervision decreased as the length of time after qualification increased 
• Participants who had recently started a new job were the most effective at carrying out clinical supervision 
 

General Summary


Overall, the evaluation has shown that Non-Managerial Clinical Supervision:

1. Reduced burnout related to depersonalisation

 2. Increased feelings of personal accomplishment

3. Reduced burnout related to emotional exhaustion for some groups of participants

4. Is an effective form of supervision

5. Has a positive impact on reflection, on professional development, on skills, and on the quality of the supervisory relationship

“I have always had a harder time with peer relationships and group dynamics at work. This feels easier now.” 




 

 

 

2002 NMCS Evaluation Report

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